think IN2 is the new wave of social media networks and communication
technologies that allow for a more intense interaction between individuals.
Essentially, Internet2 is an advanced technology committee, owned and managed by
a consortium of universities, business and government agencies. Presently, the
broader Internet2 community includes over 66,000 institutions across the U.S.
and international networking partners representing more than 50 countries.
Thought leaders from the domains of science and academic research, arts and
humanities and health sciences—as well as advanced network researchers and
developers—join forces with Internet2’s core staff to offer unparalleled
possibilities for exploration and innovation.
The history of IN2 leads to
the Abilene project created in the 90s. This network was retired in 2007 and now
is known as IN2 with a thrust towards research and education. There is now
outreach of the IN2 network to include other high-speed developments throughout
the world including Japan and other major countries.
2 Connection Structure
Reference Location: http://www.internet2.edu/network/
Physically the network is comprised of large-capacity fiber-optic cables. A major problem is the interconnection to older lines in/out of offices and homes as these are made of copper and lose the higher speed attained through the fiber optics. Current direction is to allow various selected organizations to purchase time and space on the Internet 2 dependent on their activities. A new technology system is being included which is called LOLA, which allows for reduced latency of communication and live musical interaction.
*Internet2 Member Meeting Raleigh NC 2011 Musicians Perform Together, Hundreds of Miles Apart, Using (LOLA) Ultra Fast Networks and New Technology To Provide Crisp Audio and Video. Violinist Marjorie Bagley, from the University of North Carolina – Greensboro School of Music, Theatre and Dance, and Cellist Cheng-Hou Lee, from the Northern Illinois University (NIU) School of Music demonstrated “LOLA (low latency, audio and videoconferencing technology). http://events.internet2.edu/2011/fall-mm/agenda.cfm?go=session&id=10002006&event=1148
*The term dark fiber was is sometimes referred to as a leasing practice of cables and space from an network service provider or others not traditional carriers.
Backbone is a larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller
lines that interconnect with it.
*It might be fun to check the speed of your computer Internet link! Try …http://speedtest.net/
My speed about 1.00Mbps download upload 0.97 Mbps ping 15ms.
*Upcoming federal stimulus grant from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration's Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) of $97M. The upgraded network will be capable of supporting connectivity for all of the approximately 200,000 U.S. community anchor institutions. These communities will then be able to access distance learning, telemedicine and advanced consumer services. The goal (“The Road to 100G”) for optimum speed is 100Gbps.
(The Corporation for Network Initiatives in California) illustrated the
development of the overall consortium network as Cloud services and more
external and private corporations joining the distance education process both as
independents and also as consortium members. The goal is 100 Gbps networking
across the entire West Coast of the US.
*Note the development of new cable connections such as the Singapore to Japan connection to US through submarine-cable.
* Note the International Symposium on Synchronous Learning, 5-6 October, 2011. http://www.issdl.org/index.htm Its leader and organizer was Dr. George Hess. George is Associate Professor (Music Technology) at YONG SIEW TOH CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC in Singapore. This is an important example of spotlighting what is presently being done and what will continue creatively in the future. Outstanding examples from the Symposium are provided with video documentary at the site. Two topics to view from the Symposium include:
*Collaborative Creations across Continents.
*Improvisation Across Distance: A Masterclass.